An electron transport chain (ETC) consists of a number of complexes. These series of complexes transmit electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors by way of redox reactions where in reduction and oxidation takes place simultaneously. This transmission of electron is coupled with the transmission of protons across a membrane. Electron transport chain is basically a process employed to extract energy from sunlight in photosynthesis. It is also used in case of oxidation of sugars in cellular respiration.
The main purpose of this chain is to establish surplus protons in intermembrane space to create a concentration gradient. This leads to the creation of an electrochemical proton gradient. This drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is a molecule which stores energy in highly strained bonds form. In the electron transport chain during the process of aerobic respiration molecular oxygen is the final acceptor.
During anaerobic respiration, sulphate and many of other acceptors apart from oxygen form a part of the procedure. Peptides and enzymes are among the molecules that constitute the chain. A significant electron transport chain is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes. Here, it works as oxidative phosphorylation’s site via the use of ATP synthase. The electron transport chain is located in the cell membrane of the bacteria. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, it is found in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast.
This chain is a process of cellular respiration that produces up to 34 ATP (with the help of proton gradient), FAD and NAD (recycled for being reused in Citric acid cycle and glycolysis) and water (by way of the oxygen we breathe).