# CBSE Class 12 Board Exam 2023: Important Topics for Class 12th Exam

CBSE class 12 board exams are of utmost importance as these exams are crucial in deciding your future. Your percentile decides what college you will get admission to. And hence it is important to work hard in your CBSE class 12 board exam. To be able to score high in the cbse class 12 board exam it is essential to prepare well and to keep your preparation top-notch it becomes important to have a thorough study of the CBSE board exam syllabus.

To score high you need to focus more on the important topics of the. To help you with that here is a list of all the key topics that you need to concentrate on while preparing for your CBSE class 12 board exam:

## CBSE Class 12 Board Exam 2023: Topics for Class 12th Exam

### CBSE Class 12 Board Exam: Physical chemistry

Chapter 1: Solid State

•  The important formula of unit cell dimension is M = dNaa3/ z
•  Imperfections in solids
•  Number of octahedral voids = Number of atoms and Number of tetrahedral voids = Twice the number of atoms

Chapter 2: Solutions

• Raoult’s law
•  Dalton’s law of partial pressure
•  Henry’s law
• Mole fraction = No. of moles of component/ Total no. of moles of all components
• Molarity = ( volume of solution in litres/Moles of solute)
• Molality = Mass of solvent in kg/ Moles of solute
• Mass % = (Mass of component in solution/ Total mass of the solution) ✕ 100
• Volume % = (Volume of component in solution/ Total volume of the solution) ✕ 100
•  ppm = (No. of parts of the component/ Total no. of parts of all components of solution) ✕100
•  Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
•  Van’t Hoff Factor
•  Relative Lowering of vapor pressure
•  Elevation of boiling point
• Depression of freezing point important graphs

Chapter 3: Electrochemistry

•  Type of cells:

a) Electrochemical cell / Galvanic cell

b) Electrolytic cell

• Electrode potential
• Standard electrode potential
• Anode
• Nernst equation
• Relation between cell potential and Gibbs energy:
• Relation between equilibrium constant and Gibbs energy
• Resistance(R)
• Cathode
• Cell potential
• Cell electromotive force (emf)
• SHE (Standard Hydrogen Electrode)
• Resistivity
• Specific conductance/Conductivity
• Molar conductivity
• Molar Conductivity for Strong Electrolytes
• Molar Conductivity for Weak Electrolytes
• Batteries:

a) Primary

b) Secondary

• Corrosion
• Hydrogen Economy
• Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions
• Types of electrodes

a) Inert

b) Active

Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics

• First Order Reaction Kinetics
• Arrhenius Equation
• Order and Molecularity

Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry

• The distinction between adsorption and absorption

a) Absorption from solution phase

• Colloids
• Emulsions

Chapter 6: CBSE Class 12 Board Exam: Inorganic chemistry

• Metallurgy
• Ellingham Diagram
• Mond process for refining nickel
• Van Arkel Method of refining zirconium or titanium

Chapter 7: The p-Block Elements

•  Inert pair effect
•  Disproportionation
•  Non-metallic hydrides
• Color of halogen compounds
• Non-metallic halides
• Catenation
• Interhalogen compounds
• Structures of Oxoacids: Phosphorus and Sulphur
• Structures of Fluoride: Sulphur, xenon, bromine
• Basicity of group 15 elements
• Structures of PCl5, H2SO3, H2SO4, H2S2O8, H2S2O7, HOCl, HClO2, HClO34, N2<O5, XeOF4

Chapter 8: The d- and f-block Elements

1. d-Block elements
2. f-Block elements
3. Actinoid
4. Lanthanoid Contraction
5. Actinoid Contraction

Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds

• Coordination Compounds
• Coordination Entity
• Central Atom or Ion
• Ligands
• Coordination Number
• Coordination Sphere
• Coordination Polyhedron
• Oxidation Number of Central Atom
• Homoleptic complexes
• Heteroleptic complexes
• Werner’s theory
• Valence bond theory
• Crystal-field theory

### CBSE Class 12 Board Exam: Organic Chemistry

Chapter 10 to Chapter 16

• IUPAC Nomenclature questions
• Key reactions: Sandmeyer reaction, Williamson synthesis, Riemer-Tiemann reaction, Kolbe’s reaction, Aldol Condensation, Cannizzaro Reaction, Clemmensen Reduction reaction, Hoffmann Bromamide reaction, Coupling reaction.
• Distinction test: The distinction tests are usually asked between:
• Aliphatic and aromatic compounds
• Compounds having two different functional groups
• Compounds having the same functional group but different arrangements of atoms (e.g., 1°, 2°, 3°)

### CBSE Class 12 Board Exam: Physics

Chapter 1 – Electronic Charges and Field

• Coulomb’s Law
• Forces between multiple charges electric field due to system of charges
• Electric dipole’s electric field on axial and equatorial point
• Electric dipole in external electric field
• Gauss’s law applications

Chapter 2 – Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

• Potential due to electric dipole and system of charges
•  Electric potential energy due to electric dipole and system of charges
• Equipotential surfaces
• Effect of dielectric on capacitors
• Combinations of capacitors
• Energy stored in capacitors

Chapter 3 – Current Electricity

•   Ohm’s Law
•  Limitations of ohm’s law
•  Resistivity of different materials
•  Combination of resistors
•  Combination of cells
•  Kirchhoff’s law
•  Meter bridge
•  Potentiometer

Chapter 4 – Moving Charges and Magnetism

•  Magnetic force on current carrying wire
• Motion in a magnetic field
• Velocity selector
• Cyclotron
• The magnetic field on the axis of a circular current carrying loop 6. Ampere’s circuital law
• The force between two parallel current carrying wires
• Torque on current carrying loop in a magnetic field
• Moving coil galvanometer

Chapter 5 – Magnetism and Matter

• The axial magnetic field of a bar magnet as solenoid
• Electric dipole in a uniform magnetic field
• Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic Substances
• Hysteresis Loop

Chapter 6 – Electromagnetic Induction

• Magnetic flux
•  Lens law
• Motional EMF
• Self-inductance and mutual inductance

Chapter 7 – Alternating Current

• RC, LC, LR and LCR Circuits
• LC oscillations
•  Power factor
• Resonance and Sharpness
• Transformers

Chapter 8 – Electromagnetic Waves

• Displacement Current
• EM waves
•  Nature of em waves

Chapter 9 – Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

• Image formation by spherical mirrors
• Image formation by spherical lenses
• Total internal reflection
• Power and combination of lenses
•  Refraction through a Prism
•  Natural phenomenons due to light
• Eye
• Telescope
• Microscope

Chapter 10 – Wave optics

• Reflection and refraction of plane waves using Huygen principle
• Incoherent and coherent waves addition
• Interference and Young’s double slit experiment
•  Diffraction of light
• Resolving power of optical Instruments
•  Polarisation by scattering

Chapter 11 – Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

• Photoelectric effect
• Einstein photoelectric equation
• de Broglie hypothesis
• Davisson and Germer experiment

Chapter 12 – Atoms

• Electron Orbits
• Atomic spectra
•  Bohr Model of Hydrogen atom
•  Line spectra of the Hydrogen atom
•  de-Broglie explanation of Bohr’s postulate

Chapter 13 – Nuclei

• . Nuclear binding energy

Chapter 14 – Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

• Intrinsic semiconductors
• Extrinsic semiconductors
•  p-n Junction diode
• p-n Junction in forward bias and reverse bias
• Junction diode as a rectifier
• Zener diode as a voltage regulator
• n-p-n and p-n-p transistor
• Transistor as an amplifier
• Logic gates

Chapter 15 – Communication Systems

• Elements of communication system
• Basic terminologies of electronic communication system
• Propagation of em waves
• Amplitude modulation

### CBSE class 12 board exam:  Mathematics Important Topics

Chapter 1 – Relations and Functions

Types of Relations

• Composition of Two Functions
•  Invertible Functions

Chapter 2 – Inverse Trigonometric Functions

• Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Chapter 3 – Matrices

• Multiplication of Matrices and Related Properties
• Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
• Finding Inverse of a Matrix Using Elementary Transformations

Chapter 4 – Determinants

• Properties of Determinants
• Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
• Solution of System of Linear Equations

Chapter 5 – Continuity and Differentiability

• Continuity of a Function
• Logarithmic Differentiation
• Differentiation of Functions in Parametric Form
• Second Order Derivatives

Chapter 6 – Application of Derivatives

• Rate of Change of Quantities
• Increasing and Decreasing Functions
• Tangents and Normals to Curves
• First and Second Derivative Tests for Finding Points of Local Maxima and Minima

Chapter 7 – Integrals

• Integration by the Method of Substitution
• Integration by the Method of Partial Fractions
• Integration by Parts
• Definite Integral as Limit of a Sum
• Properties of Definite Integrals

Chapter 8 – Application of Integrals

• Area under Simple Curves
•  Area Bounded by a Curve and a Line
• Area Bounded by Two Curves

Chapter 9 – Differential Equations

• Formation of Differential Equations
• Method of Solving Differential Equations with Variable Separable
• Homogeneous Differential Equations
• Linear Differential Equations

Chapter 10 – Vector Algebra

• Scalar Product of Vectors and Projection of Vector on a Line
• Vector Product of Vectors

Chapter 11 – Three Dimensional Geometry

• Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of Line
• Equation of a Line
• Coplanarity of Lines
• Angle between Two Lines
• Shortest Distance between Two Skew Lines
• Equation of a Plane in Normal Form
• Equation of Plane Perpendicular to Given Vector and Passing through a Given Point
• Equation of Plane Passing through Three Noncollinear Points
• Plane Passing through the Intersection of Two Planes
• The angle between Two Planes
•  Distance of a Point from a Plane
• The angle between a Line and a Plane

Chapter 12 – Linear Programming

• Graphical Solution of Linear Programming Problems

Chapter 13 – Probability

• Multiplication Theorem on Probability
• Independent Events
• Bayes’ Theorem
• Random Variable and Its Probability Distribution
• Mean and Variance of Random Variable
• Binomial Distribution

### CBSE Class 12 Board Exam: Biology Important Topics

Reproduction

• Modes of asexual reproduction
• Pre-fertilization events
• Inbreeding depression
• Double fertilization
• Gametogenesis, fertilization, and events of pregnancy
• Birth control methods
• Sexually transmitted diseases
• Techniques to treat infertility

Genetics and evolution

• Structure of DNA
• Experiments of F.Griffith, Hershey, chase and season and Stahl
• Mechanism- replication, transcription, and translation
• Salient features of genetic code
• Lac operon
• Homologous and analogous organs

Biology In Human Welfare

• Life cycle of Plasmodium
• Causative agents of different diseases and their mode of transmission
• AIDS and drug abuse
• Inbreeding and outbreeding
• Single cell protein
• Microbes and their products

Biotechnology

• Restriction enzymes
• Cloning vectors
• Transformation processes
• Bt cotton
• RNA interference
• Gene therapy
• Genetically engineered insulin

Ecology and environment

• Population interactions
• Pyramids of number, energy and biomass
• Causes of biodiversity losses
• Biomagnification

So, these are all the important topics of CBSE class 12 portion that will make it easy for you to score high.

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